Graphs and Charts in Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, examination, understanding, presentation of data for an organisation. Statistics is a mathematical analysis of bulk data that has been produced over a long period of time and research. With the help of statistics, we can model and represent a given set of data.

Statistics have different types of functions such as mean, variance, standard deviation, etc. A mean generates the central tendency of the given data. Variation measures the distance of each data from the mean. Standard deviation represents the dispersion of a data set with respect to the mean and is also the square root of variance. So, these were the types of statistical analysis of the information. But the question comes here, how can we represent such data? Thus, here are some of the types of graphs and charts that are commonly used to represent the data in statistics.

Types of Graphs and Charts

In statistics, there are different types of data that have been analysed, reviewed and presented for future predictions and planning. Now to represent these data, we use different types of graphs and charts such as bar graphs, line graphs, Pie charts, pictographs, histograms, Pareto charts, etc. Let us discuss here one by one.

Bar Graph

A bar graph is the simplest form of graph to represent and compare a set of data. Here, the rectangular bars represent the grouped data on the x-axis, which is proportional to the values on the y-axis.

Line Graph

In a line graph or linear graph, the data points are joined together with a straight line. These data points series are called markers.

Pie Chart

Pie charts are the least complex and most productive visual device for contrasting pieces of an entirety. For instance, a pie graph can rapidly and successfully look at different spending designations, populace fragments or statistical surveying question reactions.


These are graphs that use pictorial symbols to represent words and phrases. A pictograph uses pictures to represent data.

Pareto Chart

A Pareto chart is a graphical representation that contains both bars and a line graph. The values here are expressed by the bars in descending order whereas the cumulative form of data is represented by a line graph. The Pareto chart is used to highlight the most important data among the set of data.

Pareto analysis is an innovative perspective on issues since it animates thinking and sort out contemplations. Notwithstanding, it tends to be restricted by its rejection of conceivably significant issues which might be little at first, however which develop with time.


To find the approximate analysis and representation of numerical data, histograms are used. These are also rectangular bar graphs, attached to each other. Collect all the values in the given data and divide the range of the graph into equal intervals. Now calculate how many values will come under each interval and plot the graph.

Apart from these graphs and charts, there are other graphical representations such as Control chart, Scatter plot, Function plots, etc., that are used for data representation.

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